Food fermentation technology has a long history both in China and other countries in the world.It has formed a specialized technical system both in theory and practice. There are many kinds of fermented foods, and their technical fields are different, but generally can not be divorced from the existing theories and methods.
According to Gallo Sack's research, the term "fermentation" became related to microorganisms, and later became more associated with mildew.Early researches on fermentation focused on the decomposition of carbohydrates and the release of carbon dioxide.However, it was found that microorganisms or enzymes acting on sugars did not always release gases.Many microorganisms and enzymes also have the ability to break non-carbohydrates such as proteins and fats.
，“Fermentation”usually refers to the decomposition of carbohydrates and similar carbohydrates in anaerobic or aerobic conditions.It mainly describes the end products rather than the mechanism of biochemical reaction.Anaerobic conditions are appropriate for lactose to convert into lactic acid through streptococcus acidi lactici.It’s a true fermentation.Aerobic conditions are appropriate for ethanol to convert into acetic acid through acetobacter aceti, it’s an oxidation.
Generally, food fermentation should contain many factors.Such as wine, fermented vinegar are the decomposition of carbohydrates.Vinegar is fermented with glutinous rice and wheat bran as raw materials.Black vinegar is fermented with sorghum and wheat bran as materials, through cooking,cooling,then added Daqu to meet vinegar fermentation conditions.
Noni fruit itself has low sugar content, starch content,so it’s usually used vinegar fermentation method to ferment.The [zero added] called pure Noni enzyme in China, are generally made with vinegar fermentation method.For the end products, they can be called [zero added],but for the production process,they are not [zero added] fermentation products.
The method of [Noni itself fermentation] with 0 added in the process,is high technical,once improperly controlled,a lot of harmful bacteria will come out.In addition,the taste of noni itself is very heavy,it’s not easy to find the exsiting of many harmful bacteria through smelling and tasting.So we can only judge through comparing the different products.Even if the original product contains a lot of Escherichia coli, all the harmful bacteria can be killed through high temperature sterilization in the filling process, the content of harmful bacteria not be detected.However, it can still be judged from smelling and tasting when used.
From the production technologies,noni products can be classified as follow:
1.S-NONI’s patent【Noni itself fermentation】：Noni products made with noni fruits only.
2.Noni products added with sugar and other yeast.(widely used)
3.Noni products added with candy or sugar(homemade or small scale production)
4.The general methods of fruit and vegetable juice:widely used in European American countries(mixed noni juice).